Cyber Security Glossary
Confused by the Cyber security terms you come across in the cyber security world?
This glossary, provided by Secure Hunter, will help you to understand the key terms in the lingo of Malware and Cyber-Crime.
- ActiveX Control
- Advertising Display Software
- Alternate Data Stream
- Automatic Download Software
- Dialing Software
- Distributed Denial-of-Service (DDoS) Attack
- Passive Tracking Technologies
- Password Cracker
- Personally Identifiable Information (PII)
- Port Scanner
- Potentially Unwanted Program
- Privilege Elevation
- Registry Keys
- Remote Access/Administration Tool (RAT)
- Remote Control Software
- Risk Modeling
- Screen Scrapers/Screen Capturers
- Security Analysis Software
- State Management Tools
- System Modifying Software
- Stream Files
- System Monitor
This is a form of Browser Plug-in which Microsoft Internet Explorer Web Browser downloads and fixes.
Advertising Display Software
This is the code or computer language that exhibits promotional content.
This is a promotional software code or language that conveys promotional content basically in a way or perspective that may be unanticipated and discarded by consumers.
Several promotional softwares execute follow up tasks, and thus, may also be grouped as Follow up Technologies. A number of users possibly will crave to get rid of the promotional software if they demur to such follow up, do not desire to observe the promotion brought about by the software, or are irritated by its impacts on the technique operation.
Alternate Data Stream
This is a conservatory wing of Microsoft??s Windows NT File System (NTFS) that are well-suited with files formed using Apple??s Hierarchical File System (HFS). Softwares have to write a particular system if they are to interact with and use data kept in a different flow. Certain spyware utilize these flows to avoid exposure.
Automatic Download Software
This is software that assists in downloading and running of a program devoid of customer contact.
This is form of Remote Control Program, particularly an assortment of program robots that stream separately. These remote controlled programs are purposely tasked with conveying spam tenuously, mounting a number of Spyware exclusive of approval, and additional illegitimate intentions.
(BHO) Browser Helper Object Function
This is a program element which works together with a Web browser and offer means or carries out tasks that are not necessarily incorporated in the browser.
Emblematic instances are to present exact, explicit arrangements, to connect several media files or to increase the number of toolbars that consist of exploring or anti-phishing activities.
The peripherals or other devices or even cables can as well carry out superfluous activities including passing on of search outcomes and mounting additional unnecessary program similar to risky promotional software languages. Their forms are as follows:
- ActiveX Control: This is a form of Browser Plug-in which Microsoft Internet Explorer Web Browser downloads and fix.
- Browser Helper Object (BHOs)😕 This is a form of Browser Plug-in which is fixed and run whenever the Microsoft Internet Explorer Web browser is started. The basic type of Browser Helper Object (BHOs) includes Toolbars. Mozilla Firefox Extensions; this entails a Browser Plug-in particular to Mozilla Firefox.
Grouping the activity of issuing a number of programs simultaneously, in that when the program group is run, several apparatus will be mounted. Normally, grouping is the favorable way to issue interrelated bits of programs simultaneously. Otherwise, in other situations, unnecessary program tools, for instance irritant or detrimental promotional softwares, are capable of being put together with applications consumers?? desire, therefore, can easily be installed in their personal computers with no realization or even permission.
This is a part of information in which an internet browser or a website or even a different faction was permitted through the website kept in the hard drives of peoples computers and can be accessed whenever they go back to check on the website.
Certain cookies most of the time utilizes an exceptional means which connects to activities including sign in, information for listing, online buying of assortments, customer favorites and websites consumers call on.
This in a layman??s language means a Dialing Software or application.
This is some application using a modem belonging to a computer to give a buzz or to get assistance.
Since some Dialers may tend to dial without consumers?? consent actively and this leads to ambiguous phone bills and can lead to retrieval of unnecessary or irrelevant information.
Distributed Denial-of-Service (DDoS) Attack
This is a method of successfully closing up a remote structure by overrunning it with flows from several computers. With the use of Botnets, assaults from DDoS normally created through the use of vulnerable or weak internet systems.
This is an application that is intended to access and run extra files. They are useful apparatus for users to computerize improvements of important programs, including OC improvements, browsers, anti-virus softwares, anti-spyware apparatus, entertainment and other applicable programs.
Some users tend to use illegal downloaders to download and run useless programs with no permission from the consumers.
This is the programmed download or running of an application to the computers of? consumers at that particular moment when they login to websites or access an html configured emails with no permission of the consumer or alert whatsoever.
This automated download is basically executed whenever there is a decline in the level of a consumer??s computer safety.
This is software or an application designed to utilize a computer??s remote control system and is simply responsible for sending spam tenuously. It also runs the DDoS assaults and horde insulting web pictures. See also?Botnet.
End User License Agreement (EULA)
This is simply a concurrence linking the creator and the person using a computer application which stipulates the conditions of use approved by the consumer.
The creator of the program or application outlines the nature and the precincts on the use including lawful obligatory contract.
To bring out the solitary way of revealing a software??s actions, a number of firms apply the EULA.
This is a part of a program that uses the availability of weak or insecure computer systems used by people and retrieve data from the system unlawfully.
This is a program designed to evaluate, assess an applications safety and even make a computer??s security system vulnerable. A number of Hacker Tools have several purposes with them being softwares designed for malicious use, although some have few genuine functions.
This is defined as a program designed to upgrade system applications and install with no sufficient alert, permission or command of a consumer. These Hijackers most of the cases tend to change the settings of internet browsers, Site search engine settings are also changed and even go ahead to redirect you to a different site altogether.
Hijackers often unexpectedly alter browser settings, redirect Web searches and/or network requests to unintended sites, or substitute Website contents. They can go further ahead to make it difficult for consumers to disengage or even restore the made changes.
This is a file in a consumer??s computer that ensures that it checks up the Internet Protocol address of any peripheral or external device attached to a computer system.
Redirecting of users to access sites that they did not want to visit in the first place is normally done by spywares which in most occasions alter a host file.
Keylogger (or Keystroke Logger)
This is a follow up program that is designed to report the keyboard and mouse movements when connected to a computer. This software keeps record of reports emanating from the keystrokes to be used later and even goes further to broadcast them to the user or the remote method. It can be said to keep track of mouse and keyboard movements. These softwares are as well prone to risky uses by hijackers to secretly follow the conduct to carry out unnecessary or illegal activities such as identity theft.
This is the aspects that are used by anti-spyware firms to come up with a conclusion whether to select a progression or application Spyware in terms of behavior.
This is software which is designed to pack together and encrypt a file that can be run in a way that avoids complementing the recollection picture of that particular file with the authentic file on the disk. Packers also have the function of protecting original work from copying and thus, enable Spyware to be less prone to detection or scrutiny.
Passive Tracking Technologies
These are technologies that are employed observe the conduct of a consumer or even collect details concerning the consumer. It can occasionally entail individually seen or additional details.
This is a safety program created to enable a user to get back or decrypt missing, forgotten and unidentified passwords. This security application can come up with a password by administering a thorough and vigorous assault for example trying popular words that can be found in voluminous dictionaries which users often choose as their passwords.
Even though they are considered as legal parameters utilized by safety implementers and regulation administering officials, the password crackers avail a vital safety and confidentiality risk when wrongly put into use.
Personally Identifiable Information (PII)
This is information or details of a recognizable person, its gathering, significance or even make known that the person might feel like controlling.
To satisfy all their customers, several anti-spyware dealers normally employ use of their individual description of personal information.
This is a safety program or application that is designed to check and find out the activities provided by computer network services system. It allows for scanning of the ports on the computer system to investigate the available limitations.
Potentially Unwanted Program (PUP)
This is software that does not show illicit conduct but still brings about small safety and confidentiality anxiety where its importance could be doubted.
This is a lawful and obligatory warning that is outlined by a firm concerning the consumer??s personal details.
The confidentiality guidelines must outline how the information should be collected and its other uses and how the details should be shared with other people and their identities.
This is a procedure that enables a person or gadget to get unlawful benefits like an administrator rank often found in a computer system.
This is a catalog or record that has been upgraded into particular OCs that keep data for example, settings, user preferences, license details, information on hardware, applications and peripherals to run in the computer.
These are the submissions that are solely entered in the Registry itself.
Vendors usually use Spyware to make alterations on the registry key importance anytime a new application is run and mounted or configuration settings are upgraded. This will ensure that the registry system is managed and the alterations can weaken the usual significance of the computer.
Remote Access/Administration Tool (RAT)
This is a program that is created and run so as to ease remote retrieval of or management of a network.
A form of Remote Control Programs includes; RATs and they can be vulnerable to Hijackers who can run, disable, stop software working or execute illegal activities.
Remote Control Software
This is particular software that is run to enable remote entry and management of computer networks.
This is the procedure applied by anti-spyware dealers to establish the classification of a Spyware and revolves around the category and risk.
This is a software which illegally obtains a computer??s administrator??s accessibility rank which might as well run in a way that averts exposure. If this happens, it is used to track flow and keystrokes, create an alternative route into the computer network and change the system applications to evade exposure. The Rootkit guidelines substitute the real computer network guidelines employed by the Hijacker and cover the availability of the Rootkit.
Screen Scrapers/Screen Capturers
This is a program which follows and reports pictures of actions on the screen of a computer monitor.
The Screen Capturers usually keep the stored pictures or film to be used at a later time and convey them to the remote procedure or user using it.
There are lawful functions of screen scrapers but at the same time are illegally used by dangerous Hijackers to carry out activities such as identity theft.
Security Analysis Software
This is a software employed by the user of a computer to scrutinize and avoid safety compromises. .
This is the other term used to refer to descriptions of Spyware ?? i.e. program used for tracking
State Management Tools
This is the technology that is used to keep record and avail data showing how structure of a system ?? i.e. details of existing requirements and activities.
To retain and keep information retrieved from an internet site; Cookies are used as they are the well known type of a State Management Tool.
System Modifying Software
This is an application employed to computer systems to upgrade and alter their familiarity including lower level structure roles, acting media executions, search pages and home pages.
In a lighter note it is a program created to make a follow up without authority from the consumer. According to other definitions, Spyware is the illegal technology that alters consumer??s familiarity, confidentiality, use, network safety, running and mounting of new softwares, gathering and conveying of personal details.
View? Alternate Data Stream.
This is a follow up program is used to check and scrutinize computer system actions.
The system monitors vary in their ability although they might store certain or precisely all activities like passwords, usernames, forms of information, direct messages, sites accessed, rooms for online chatting, e-mails, keystrokes and screen captures.
These details are moreover kept to be used at a later time or conveyed to the remote procedure or user using the monitor. Examples of System Monitors majorly include Keyloggers?and?Screen Scrapers.
This is any Cookie that brings into play user follow up and checking of their browsing behaviors.
It is also seen as a follow up technology. Their purposes include scrutinizing or control of promotional information by advertisers without forgetting its main role as summarizing and tracking consumer??s activities directly. Thus, making a follow up on cookies is just a text file and a number of activities with a particular site or related sites.
This is a program that scrutinizes the consumer habit, or collects details of the consumer, at times entails individually selectable or other precise details via a software which can be run.
This is a download program used to run or re-run an application by downloading bit by bit in the backdrop making it to be noticed less.
This application enables a Spyware software to run mutely or to re-run after a consumer has detached parameters of the software to the computer system.
This is an application that when run tends to do a particular activity, but in real sense it does another. It is also known as a Trojan horse.
UVPIE (United Virtualities Persistent Identification Element)
This is a follow up technology created to act as a substitute to Cookies thereby making good use of Macromedia Flash players.
The program brings out the best type of a follow up Technology that is passive.
This is the person using or owning the computer system or computer network. He or she is referred to as system operator.
This is a language or application that dangerously imitates a probable duplicate of itself.
They contaminate a system file or computer system and basically alter the position of system components in order to manage then duplicate to create new cohort.
These are harmful applications or viruses that attack computer network and duplicate on several computer networks.
Worms always run themselves like robots on a remote system even with no assistance from a computer administrator.
Worms like mass-mailer as they are known, will not at any point robotically run themselves with no assistance from a computer administrator.
This is a computer structure or system which has been overridden or attacked by the use of Remote Control applications.
These systems normally are employed into a network to launch spam or to assault the remote servers with huge quantity of flow, i.e. a?Distributed Denial-of-Service (DDoS) Assault. A botnet is created from a group of Zombies.